2 page essay and question to answer

Required Reading

Delmonico, F. L., Domínguez-Gil, B., Matesanz, R., & Noel, L. (2011). Organ transplantation 1: A call for government accountability to achieve national self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation. The Lancet, 378(9800), 1414-8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/900104741?accountid=14375

Doig, C. & Rocker, G. (2003). Retrieving organs from non-heart-beating organ donors: a review of medical and ethical issues. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 50(10), 1069-1076.http://www.springerlink.com/content/xq622m7g54h87301/

Fraser, Kimberly D,R.N., PhD., Estabrooks, Carole,R.N., PhD., Allen, Marion,R.N., PhD., & Strang, Vicki,R.N., PhD. (2010). The relational nature of case manager resource allocation decision making: An illustrated case. Care Management Journals, 11(3), 151-6.

Frunza, M., Frunza, S., Catalin, V. B., & Grad, O. (2010). Altruistic living unrelated organ donation at the crossroads of ethics and religion. a case study. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 9(27), 3-24. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/816629192?accountid=14375

Howard, Richard J,M.D., PhD., Cornell, Danielle L,R.N., B.S.N., & Cochran, L. (2012). History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations. Progress in Transplantation, 22(1), 6-16; quiz 17

Miller, F. G., & Truog, R. D. (2008). Rethinking the ethics of VITAL ORGAN DONATIONS. The Hastings Center Report, 38(6), 38-46. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/222366351?accountid=14375

One of the most difficult dilemmas to resolve relates to the allocation of valuable, but scarce resources. Setting standards by which resources are allocated is not an easy task. We hear about patients every day that don’t make it because there aren’t enough organs for those on the list. Please read the article: History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations by Howard, Cornell, and Cochran. After reading the article and doing additional research, please respond to the following questions.

  1. Discuss some of the earliest examples of transplantation. Do you think these early experiments made it easier for it to become so commonplace today? What lessons can we learn from the early pioneers?
  2. Discuss the process of using organs from deceased patients. What are at least two ethical principles that apply to this process? Be sure to address distributive justice as one of your choices. What are the ethical issues that may arise? What are some instances where the dead donor rule has been violated?
  3. Briefly discuss the origins of organ procurement organizations (OPO). What role do they play in organ donations? What ethical issues do you see with these organizations? What are the rules and regulations that govern these organizations?
  4. We tend to think of organ transplantation as pertaining to healthcare alone. Provide some examples of how your specific discipline might impact some aspect of organ donation. For example, how might a public health agency impact the process or rules and regulations for organ donation?

Use the information in the modular background readings as well as resources you find through ProQuest or other online sources. Please be sure to cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper. Submit the paper as a WORD document through the link provided for the assignment.

Assignment Expectations

  1. Discuss Mr. Krampitz’s case from the perspective of distributive justice and the allocation of scarce resources.
  2. Limit your responses to three pages, not including title and reference pages.
  3. Be sure to incorporate module and course concepts into your discussion.
  4. Be sure to apply critical thinking skills in your write-up.
  5. Provide several (3-5) scholarly references to support your discussions and be certain to properly cite all references.


The rationing of scarce healthcare resources is a subject that is both politically sensitive and raises a number of ethical dilemmas for those charged with making treatment decisions. The ethical dilemma is health care is how to balance the precepts of autonomy, beneficence, and distributive justice. Rationing may affect 3 dimensions of coverage: the share of the population covered; the services covered; and the extent to which services are covered (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). The U.S. spends 50% more per capita on health care than any other country while achieving worse health than many (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). Poorly coordinated insurance mechanisms leave 19% of the population uninsured (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). Until passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) in 2010, health care was effectively a privilege, not a right (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). While PPACA seeks to rectify this, by 2019 five percent of non-elderly U.S. residents will likely remain uninsured (Tuetsch & Rechel, 2012).  There are some who believe the U.S. healthcare system is broken and in desperate need of a radical change—the very change that the passage of the ACA represents. It could be argued that the ACA will only worsen the rationing of healthcare services in the United States. What is your position on this matter? Is the rationing of healthcare a bad thing or a necessary action? What ethical dilemmas might be associated with the rationing of healthcare services and how could they be effectively addressed? Please support your positions/arguments with credible evidence.

Answer must be 200 words minimum with cite reference and link