PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE keep in mind that this is for my final research paper!!It is for ENG102.
PLAGIARISM WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED!!!!!
Please write mostly in your own words!!!
The topic of my research paper is:
Why dictator style leadership is better than laissez-Faire style Leadership
Web Searching 101
While the free flow of information on the Web is one of its greatest attributes, it is also one of its greatest liabilities. It is important to remain mindful that anyone can publish information on the Web and that no standards exist ensure the accuracy of content published online. Unlike traditional print resources, Web resources rarely have editors or academic reviewers. As a researcher, you must be prepared to scrutinize Web content more closely than library materials, which have undergone a review process prior to being added to the library collection. For this reason, the library remains the most enduring and dependable “information space” for scholars. While this lesson explores Web searching strategies, you are encouraged to use resources from both the Web the Rio Salado Library when conducting research (see the How Do I? Video Series for tips on how to search a number of popular library databases).
On the bright side, the Web can still be an excellent source of solid, reliable information if searched wisely. Via the specialized search engine Google Scholar, you can search broadly across multiple disciplines for scholarly literaturePDF on a wide variety of topics. While these resources often require a fee for access, a substantial number of the articles available through Google Scholar can be easily accessed free of charge through the Rio Salado Library. Look for “Full-Text @Rio Salado” as illustrated below.
The Directory of Open Access Journals is another great Web resource that provides access to scholarly journals entirely free of charge. Content located via Google Scholar and the Directory of Open Access Journals is peer-reviewed (a method for ensuring that information is of the highest quality), so you don’t need worry about whether or not sources accessed through these sites are “good enough” to include as part of your research. If you are ever in doubt as to the suitability of a potential online source, use the Checklist for Evaluating Web ResourcesPDF to help determine whether or not it is appropriate for college research.
Boolean Search Strategies
In English 101, you covered the basics of searching the periodical databases that are available through the Rio Salado Library. To review, while you can search the databases using a single keyword or topic (e.g., pollution), this kind of search will return A LOT of results, many of which will have little to do with what you are after. A better strategy is to streamline your search by using one or more additional keywords separated with the words AND, OR, or NOT. This is called Boolean searching. Review the tutorial Searching Effectively Using AND, OR, NOT to learn more.
Also, recall that if your search term is a phrase (e.g., “history of distance learning”), you should enclose the phrase in quotation marks (” “). This will help you search with greater precision by ensuring that you only retrieve documents that contain the exact phrase in the search results. If you run a search on the history of distance learning without using quotation marks, the search engine will look for pages that contain the word “history,” the word “distance,” and the word “learning,” many of which may not be relevant or suit your research needs.
Boolean Searching in Three Minutes or Less
If you have not already done so, review the tutorial Searching Effectively Using AND, OR, NOT. In summary, use the AND operator to narrow or limit your search. As illustrated below, the search “second-hand smoke” AND cancer will only retrieve documents that contain BOTHof these keywords (indicated by the shaded area). When searching the Web, using the Boolean operator AND doesn’t work the same way it does in a library database. To get the desired results, you will want to place a plus sign directly in front of any word/s you want to include in the search string:
Searching “second-hand smoke” AND cancer
“second-hand smoke” +cancer
Using the AND operator is a great strategy to use when you are trying to determine the relationship between two or more topics. The more terms that you add, the more focused and precise your search results will be. As illustrated below, the search “second-hand smoke” AND cancer AND prevention (or “second-hand smoke” +cancer +prevention on the Web) will return very specific results:
Searching “second-hand smoke” AND cancer AND prevention
“second-hand smoke” +cancer +prevention
Use the OR operator to broaden or expand your search. For the most part, you will want to use the OR operator when you aren’t getting enough results. If you are doing a search on the rare yellow-eyed leaf frog and find that you are getting a limited number of hits, adding the frog’s Latin name (or any other associated designation) to the search string will help. The search “yellow-eyed leaf frog” OR agalychnas annae will return documents that contain one, or the other, or all of the keywords, significantly broadening your search results. This search also works well when dealing with words that are commonly referred to by their acronyms, such as AIDS, SIDS, MADD, etc. For example, the search “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” OR SIDS will return more results than if you searched with one keyword or the other:
Searching “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” OR SIDS
The OR operator functions the same way on the Web as it does in a library database. It does not have an associated shortcut like the ANDoperator (+) and the NOT operator (-). However, be sure to capitalize the OR operator when searching on the Web.
Finally, use the NOT operator to exclude a topic This is most helpful in those rare instances where you find you are getting a lot of results that have nothing to do with your topic. This can happen when you are using a search term that has several unrelated meanings. When searching on the Web, using the Boolean operator NOT doesn’t work like it does in a library database. To get the desired results, you will want to place a minus sign directly in front of the word you want to exclude. For example, a “mullet” is both a fish and a hairstyle. Mullet -hair is the same as mullet NOT hair. When performing a Web search, placing the minus sign directly before the word “hair” will exclude any documents that refer to the hairstyle and only return those documents that are related to the fish.
Searching mullet NOT hair (mullet –hair)
Another way you can use the NOT operator is when you want to find information on only one of two closely related subjects. Jazz NOT blues (jazz -blues) is an example of this kind of search.
Place an asterisk (*) on the root of a word to bring back results that include all forms of that word:
Example behav* will find behave, behavior, behaviour, behavioural, behaviourism, etc.
Use parentheses to combine multiple related terms into one single search string using the different options presented above:
child* AND (diet OR nutrition) AND (autism NOT Asberger’s)
child* +(diet OR nutrition) +(autism -Asberger’s)
Beyond Boolean: A Few More Tricks for the Bag
This final section of the lesson will be devoted to Web searching tips and techniques that will give you a leg up on your next search challenge.
Limiting by Domain
Have you ever noticed that commercial Web sites tend to dominate the results listing of a typical search when you use Google, Yahoo, or any other major search engine? Did you know that there is a quick and easy way to filter out the commercial sites and get to the content you want? A vast amount of solid, reliable information on the Web comes from reputable, well-documented sources such as universities, professional organizations, and government sites. To limit by a particular domain or site (e.g., .edu, .gov, .org), simply type in the domain you want at the end of your search string using the following formula:
Your topic site:domain
Bin Laden site:gov
Be sure there is no space after the colon. This search will retrieve information on Osama Bin Laden from U.S. government Web sites.
“gaming in education” site:.edu
This will retrieve information about gaming in education from only those sites with the .edu domain.
To illustrate further, click on the following examples and observe the green links in the results listings (You will use Google for the purpose of this exercise, but this trick works with most search engines):
twitter (typical Google search; provides mostly .com sites)
twitter site:edu (ONLY .edu sites)
twitter site.org (ONLY .org sites)
twitter site:gov (ONLY .gov sites)
Were you surprised to discover that NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander has an identity on Twitter? Oh, the things you will learn searching by domain!
Try it! Do a Google search on a topic of interest and limit your search to the domain of your choice.
For the Ambitious and Inspired—More Google Hacks
If you are interested in learning more handy shortcuts, watch the following video:
Google ‘Hacks,’ courtesy of Dr. Dunley, English Chair, Rio Salado College.
Control F: A Researcher’s Best Friend
After a long, hard day of staring at the computer screen, weeding through a Web page to locate that one keyword or keyword phrase that you know is there but is somehow eluding you can be difficult. Control F is a researcher’s best friend in such situations. To utilize Control F, go to your desired Web page and simply hold down the Ctrl button and hit the F key at the same time (if you have a Mac, use the command key). A dialog box will appear. Type in the word or phrase, and let the “Find” feature do the looking for you!
Try it! Go to Wikipedia and use Ctrl F to find this term:
Hint: Use the Next button to the right of the search box or hit “Enter” to locate all occurrences of “tiger shark” in the document.
This trick also works with PDF documents:
Try it! Go to “The Truth About Graphic NovelsPDF?” and use Ctrl F to find this term:
Hint: Use the page icons to the right of the search box or the “Enter” key to locate all occurrences of the word “book” in the document.
Once you get in the habit of using this feature, you will wonder how you ever lived without it!
Now that you have a well-stocked arsenal of search tools and tricks at your disposal, you are ready to begin the hunt for validated, authoritative sources for your annotated bibliography!
The Annotated Bibliography
An annotated bibliography is a list of sources (books, Web sites, journal articles, etc.) that have been analyzed and evaluated for use in a research project. Each “annotation” includes a properly formatted MLA citation of the source, followed by a 100-200 word descriptive and evaluative summary about the source. The steps for compiling and completing a comprehensive annotated bibliography are provided in the Annotated Bibliography reading.
Please note that for ENG102, your annotation should also contain a description of your search strategy. Below are some examples:
- I found this article in the CQ Researcher library database by entering the search term “Occupy Wall Street” into the Quick Search box. I then selected the article “Occupy Movement” from among the results that were listed.
- I found this article by searching Google Scholar using the search string dyslexia +children. I limited the search to articles (not patents) and only searched the last five years. This still returned a lot of results, so I changed my search to “dyslexic children” +learning which focused the results.
- Using the Directory of Open Access Journals (doaj.org), I searched for hacker AND culture and found four articles and the best one (cited here) was the last listed.
After researching, narrow your list of sources to seven and proceed with writing the annotated bibliography. Include a properly formatted citation. Please refer to the MLA Formatting and Style Guide for various “works cited” formatting examples. Your annotation should include the following elements:
- The source’s authority of the topic.
- A brief description/summary of the source.
- A short analysis of the source which may include:
- The possible relationship to other sources (if applicable)
- Any biases noted
- Any significant features of the source
- The intended audience.
- Your brief opinion of the source.
- Your search strategy
THESE INSTRUCTIONS ARE DIRECTLY COPIED AND PASTED FROM MY ASSIGNMENT. IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS PLEAIS ASSIGNMENT IS WORTH 100 POINTS.