Discussion: The Heinz Dilemma
One cannot be properly exposed to the study of moral development without a knowledge of the “Heinz Dilemma” of Lawrence Kohlberg, which he used with people of all ages to determine his/her stage of moral reasoning.
In Europe, a women was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug had cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow money, but he could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later, but the druggist said “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?
Other issues to consider are what are some variables that influenced your answer? Did you want more information? What are some issues with/criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
*write 2-3 paragraphs min!
Discussion: What is Intelligence?
Without referring to a specific theory of intelligence you have been exposed to, how are you most comfortable defining intelligence? Being able to define what you are actually measuring is a very important aspect of research.
- Discuss what theory of intelligence most closely incorporates your ideas about intelligence.
- Can you measure intelligence as you have defined it?
- As one of the theorists define it?
- What are the challenges of quantifying intelligence?
*write 2-3 paragraphs min!
Learning Guide: Personal Development
The Components of Personal Development: Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Identity Formation with Consideration given to Gender and Ethnic/Racial Identity
Self-concept, self-esteem, and self-identity: These are constructs that psychologists find useful in understanding people’s development and behavior. The self-concept is the picture one has of him or herself. Self-esteem is the valuation of particular elements of the self. Identity is the unique combination of personality characteristics and social styles that defines oneself and is recognized by others. Self-concept, self-esteem, and identity formation in adolescents are influenced by cognitive development. The development of formal operational abilities, such as the ability to use abstract conceptions of the self, enable the adolescent to separate the real from the possible, and to use hypothetical-deductive logic about oneself with respect to oneself and one’s environment. This enables the adolescent to develop a personal philosophy of life, a more abstract self-concept, and a greater awareness of the self.
The concepts presented here about personal development are not separate from the concepts about social and emotional development to follow, but rather lay the groundwork upon which allaspects of the self are based.
Self-concept in Adolescence
- William James argued that people can have multiple selves, just as they play multiple roles. Sociological theories claim that the self is formed as appraisals from others are internalized. Cognitive psychologists argue that people create a theory of self and actively search for information about themselves. Humanistic psychologists argue that the self is partially formed through the individual’s understanding of his/her own experience.
- Young children often define themselves in terms of possessions and activities. Elementary school children look at their characteristics and compare themselves with others, but adolescents define themselves in more abstract terms. their descriptions are more complex and some of the traits are in conflict with each other (an important article by Susan Harter, Developmental Analysis of Conflict Caused by Opposing Attributes in the Adolescent Self-Portrait explores these concepts further).
- Early adolescents are not aware of these contradictions, but during the middle years of adolescence, these contradictions bother teenagers: they become worried about acting phony or false. These contradictions are integrated during the late adolescent years. Discrepancies between the real self and the ideal self are troublesome, especially in middle adolescence.
Self-esteem in Adolescence
- High self-esteem is related to many positive outcomes, while low self-esteem is related to a number of poorer outcomes, although these relationships are not strong.
- A person may have high self-esteem in one area, and low self-esteem in another. High global self-esteem would be found if an individual evaluates him or herself highly in domains of importance to the self and the circle within which the self is involved.
- Although self-esteem is relatively stable, if social support or positive evaluations of the self in areas of importance improve, self-esteem may increase as well.
- Erik Erikson, in his theory of lifespan development, argued that the positive outcome of the psychosocial crisis of adolescence is a solid sense of ego identity, while the negative outcome is a sense of role confusion. While some psychologists consider identity as a coherent whole, others speak about identity in terms of different parts, such as an occupational identity or a religious identity. Erikson maintained that identity formation entails exploration and commitment. Initially he described the transitions in adolescence as “identity crisis” because so much is at stake at this time.
- James Marcia suggested four identity statuses:
Identity foreclosure: adolescents who make identity commitments without a real crisis, or confrontation, with the person one could be and might want to be.
Identity diffusion: adolescents who have not meaningfully explored their alternatives and avoid commitments.
Identity moratorium: adolescents who experience a crisis but have not made a commitment
Identity achievement: adolescents who have explored identity issues and made commitments.
- Although exploration is central to identity formation for both males and females, some psychologists argue that females are more likely to base their identities on interpersonal factors and males on intrapersonal factors. More recent studies emphasize the integration of interpersonal and intrapersonal factors for women.
- Sex typing involves learning the behaviors and attitudes that are considered appropriate for one’s gender in a particular culture, in other words, expectations for behaviors within a society for males and females. In most societies, the typical stereotypes for males is agentic, and the typical stereotype for females is communal.
- There is generally greater gender-role flexibility for females than males (could this be because males are dominant, and there is no/less loss of status for a female to take on a male role than for a male to take on a female role?) There is also greater gender role flexibility in elementary school aged children and in later adolescence, than in early adolescence, when it seems primary to establish oneself in one’s gender role.
- There is a great range of opportunities for adolescents to explore their identities in different socio-cultural groups. Typically, the more traditional the society, the more limited the opportunities are, especially for females. This is true within the culture, however, there are also social barriers placed around many cultures from outside. Therefore, many adolescents do not have the opportunity to successfully emerge with identity achievement and instead emerge with identities which are incomplete and restricted in many ways.
- The meaning of self and identity differ depending on cultural expectations. Minimally, Western cultures identify successful maturation as achieving independence. Other cultures frequently see successful maturation as learning how to adapt to group membership.
Primary Source: Study Guide for Adolescence by Vanchella. Houghton-Mifflin (2004)
Learning Guide: Social Development and Bullying
In discussing social development, we are not focusing on popularity or general social acceptance in this section, but rather the components of social training and social development that lead to successful adulthood. This includes how children and adolescents navigate successful citizenship, the development of successful relationships and the ability to be a productive contributor to one’s society. The components of these aspects of social development are: morality, spirituality, and perspective-taking.
The key to all social development is the ability to take multiple perspectives at the same time. Perspective-taking is the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others (Santrock, 2014). But it is more than that. One must be able to distinguish the actions and goals of the other from the goals and actions of oneself, and, therefore, not consciously or unconsciously impose expectations upon them which meet one’s needs.
To do this, the perspective of oneself and the perspective of the other must be distinct. The cognitive tension of the differences between perspectives as well as the emotional connection (empathy) across perspectives must be simultaneously experienced for successful perspective-taking to occur. This is the path of empathy (different from the path of knowledge) that takes one to the higher levels of moral reasoning and spiritual beliefs talked about in the module.
The Role of Peers
During adolescence youngsters become increasingly oriented to their peers. Whereas in middle childhood, children played mainly in same-sex groups, they begin in early adolescence to include both same- and opposite-sex youngsters in their activities. In early adolescence, young people seem most comfortable in three or four person groups of same-sex peers, called cliques. In these cliques, they practice skills relevant to romantic activities and dating. Gradually, cliques give way to crowds which are larger, mixed-sex groups that socialize together. From the crowds, toward the latter part of adolescence, intimate couples form. For most young people, this progression describes important changes that are taking place in their social lives during the teenage years.
Developmental changes in friendships over time
- 4th graders: parents primary source of social support
- 7th grade: friends as supportive as parents
- 10th grade: friends are the most frequent providers of social support
- Adolescents’ cliques typically are composed of people of the same age, same race, same socioeconomic background, and the same sex (at least during early and middle adolescence).
There are 3 additional factors that determine clique membership, including:
- Orientation toward school: members tend to be similar in their attitudes towards school, school achievement, and educational plans.
- Orientation toward the teen culture: they listen to the same kind of music, dress similarly, spend their leisure time in similar types of activities.
- Involvement in antisocial activity: antisocial aggressive adolescents tend to gravitate towards each other.
Friends vs. nonfriends (how do they differ?)
Children or adolescents who are “friends,” are more successful at:
- Resolving conflicts
- Establishing common ground activities
- Communicating clearly
- Exchanging information, more specifically, “self disclosure” (the act of revealing private or intimate information about oneself to another person).
Teens with poor peer relationships are more likely to:
- Be low achievers in school
- Drop out of high school
- Have a range of learning disabilities
- Show higher rates of delinquent behavior
- Suffer from emotional and mental health problems as adults
Bullying and Social development
A new law was passed in NY state that went into effect on July 1, 2012 called the Dignity Act.
Overview of The Problem
How much of a problem is bullying in terms of how many school aged children in the US experience it? According to the Indicators of School Crime and Safety report (2010), about 32% of students ages 12-18 reported having been bullied at school, during the school year.
- 21% of students reported they had been made fun of
- 18% of students reported that they had been the subject of rumors
- 11% said they were pushed, shoved or spit on
- 6% said they were threatened with harm
- 5% said they were excluded from activities on purpose
- 4% said they someone tried to make them do things they did not want to do
- 4% said their property was destroyed on purpose
Where were these students bullied?
- 79% reported that they were bullied inside of school
- 23% said they were bullied outside, on school grounds
- 8% reported being bullied on the school bus
Of the students who reported being bullied, 7% of those students said they were bullied on an almost daily basis. And an important thing for teachers to know is that only 36% of students who were bullied notified a teacher or another adult at the school about this event. And in terms of gender differences, female students were more likely to report being bullied than male students (33% vs. 30%).
In terms of racial/ethnic differences, a higher percentage of white students (34%) reported being bullied at school than Hispanic students (27%) or Asian students (18%).
Approximately 4% of students ages 12-18 reported being cyber-bullied during the school year. Cyber-bullying is much more common among female students (5%) when compared to male students (2%). Cyber-bullying includes students who responded that another student posted hurtful information about the respondent on the internet or made unwanted contact by threatening or insulting the respondent via instant messaging and/or texting.
Some Questions to Think About:
- Do these numbers seem high or low to you based on your experience in schools?
- Which of these statistics do you think it is most important for teachers to pay attention to?
- Were you surprised that girls reported higher rates of bullying than boys? How can you address this gender difference in terms of how you deal with bullying behaviors in your classroom?
Learning Guide: Emotional Development
Emotional Development is discussed in detail in Santrock (Chapter 4). I’m sure you can see that it has components of all of the other types of development discussed so far, including: cognitive, social, and moral development and identity formation. It is even more subtle and embedded than the other areas that were addressed. Here we will talk about aspects of adolescent growth which infuse the emotional ties of adolescents, including love, respect, and relationships.
Erikson’s Identity Formation: Ability to Make Commitments
Perhaps Erikson’s Identity Formation might not be the place that you would start to explore emotional relationships – perhaps you would start with dating, or sexual maturity, or other sources. Underlying the physical, emotional, and intellectual changes in adolescence, however, is the capacity to see oneself symbolically, that is, as an identity. All of these aspects of the self are maturing at roughly the same time, leaving the adolescent potentially churning with respect to identity issues. How teenagers manage their sexuality, manage their sense of responsibility to their family, peers and intimate friends, and manage their risks and choices all depend upon the development of the identity which he or she knows will influence the rest of their lives. Erikson and others have identified adolescence as the time of the greatest need for – as well as the greatest benefit from – self exploration.
Perhaps the hardest of all adolescent explorations are emotional commitments. Of course, a teenager can go through adolescence without exploring the emotional arena, but at the risk of identity foreclosure, identity diffusion, or identity moratorium, and at the expense of identity achievement. And because emotional commitments can sometimes have repercussions which are the hardest to undo and have a severe impact on life’s choices (such as STDs, pregnancy, and marriage), adults can be complicit in attempts to limit exploration. So the ability to make commitments is critical in adolescents for the achievement of identity formation, as is the ability to not make commitments which lead to identity foreclosure.
The Development of Self-Control
Self-control is the ability to make choices about how one behaves and acts rather than relying on impulses. It is precisely the balance needed between self-control and self-expression that defines a good life, and self-control is one of the primary challenges of the teenage years when one needs to explore and learn about the self.
At ages 10 – 12, children can be guided to take a look at situations where they lost their tempers, reflectively, and analyze them. Sometimes the situations that make someone upset can be seen as less awful than they first appeared and the children can think about strategies to master the situation next time it appears. But think about what this implies: a child who is not afraid to reflect and a trusted adult or mature peer who has successful negotiating skills and who will sit down and converse with the child. Just as a child can be positively influenced after a situation, they can be negatively influenced as well by a confidant who isn’t interested in leading the child to a more balanced emotional state.
From ages 13 to 17, most teenagers should be able to control their actions, although they are not very good at judging the long-term consequences of their behaviors. We have also already discussed how teenagers may be less able to discern emotions. Here are some responses that can help a teenager who might be headed for trouble:
- encourage the commitment and participation of the adolescent in change
- encourage motivation for a goal which leads the adolescent in a positive direction and provide a supportive environment for the direction of that motivation
- encourage use all of the tools described here and elsewhere related to cognitive and emotional education (from classical conditioning to social modeling)
- encourage the visualization of consequences – both positive and negative – for actions
- encourage the practice of relaxation exercises to reduce the stress that can cloud both cognitive and emotional balance
- encourage the teenager to talk through the troubling situation
- impose constraints (loss of privileges) to reinforce the message of the importance of self-control
These points all seem obvious, and clearly are not going to succeed with adolescents who have a long history of control problems, lack of home support, and peers who instigate dangerous behaviors. No interventions will show significant results in the short-term, so restrictive measures (loss of privileges) are often required with re-education but being a positive role model for impulse control, and showing personal care and concern for the adolescent have the strongest long-term results.
Statistics on adolescent sexual behavior (grades 9-12, national random sample):
- Some statistics and prevention efforts addressing teenage pregnancy: CDC: Adolescent Reproductive Health: About Teen Pregnancy
Learning Guide: Moral Development
Kohlberg developed three levels of moral reasoning, each of which has two stages, the titles of which are fairly self-explanatory:
These three levels and their stages include:
- Level 1: Preconventional Ethics
- Stage 1: Punishment/Obedience
- Stage 2: Market Exchange
- Level 2: Conventional Ethics
- Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony
- Stage 4: Law and Order
- Level 3: Post-Conventional Ethics
- Stage 5: Social Contract
- Stage 6: Universal Principles
In order to have the highest levels of moral reasoning, a person must have the capacity for formal operational thinking. It might be that you are willing to agree with Kohlberg that these stages seem to capture the essence of moral reasoning in people (not only children but adults). In addition to this view of moral reasoning, however, we must add the research of Carol Gilligan, Larry Kohlberg’s student. Kohlberg did his research only with men, and Gilligan discovered that when women were given the same research questions (see the Heinz Dilemma in the discussion section of this module) they responded differently than men, by showing a concern for mercy more starkly than a concern for justice. Mercy is closely related to the capacity to show Empathy.
Gilligan’s work was informative for a number of reasons:
- it pointed out the need for both genders to be studied
- it showed that there was more than one way to interpret moral reasoning, and, more importantly
- it made us aware that we may be in error in our judgments such as assuming that we know a truth (that men have higher moral reasoning than women) which we should always be on guard against.
Learning Guide: Theories of Intelligence
The following is a brief overview of some of the key theories/research in the area of intelligence. Included in this discussion is Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences. If you are interested, you might try a quick survey based on Gardner’s theory (not a scientific one by any stretch, but might be interesting to identify your preferences).
What is Intelligence?
(Overview provided by: Heather Reynolds, Ph.D.)
Below is an “intelligence” test.
- See how many of the following questions you can answer honestly.
- Calculate your “intelligence.”
- Argue how this doesn’t measure your intelligence and why.
A quick test of your intelligence…
Example: 16 = O in a P Answer: 16 ounces in a pound
- 26 = L of the A
- 7 = D of the W
- 1001 = AN
- 12 = S of the Z
- 54 = C in a D
- 9 = P in the SS
- 99 = PK
- 13 = S on the AF
- 32 = D at which WF
- 18 = H on a GC
- 90 = D in a RA
- 200 = D for PG in M
- 8 = S on a SS
- 3 = BM (SHTR)
- 4 = Q in a G
- 24 = H in a D
- 1= W on a U
How did you perform?
- Check your responses to the intended answers.
- Does this test measure intelligence?
- What is intelligence?
- What are the components of intelligence?
- How are you most comfortable defining intelligence?
Widely Accepted Definition of Intelligence
- Application of cognitive skills and knowledge to solve problems, learn, and achieve goals valued by the individuals and the culture (Gardner, 1983).
- What about the cultural context of intelligence?
- How do we evaluate how intelligent someone is in our culture?
Individual Differences in Intelligence
- Intelligence quotient (IQ)
- First test developed in 1905
- Most widely used and misused psychological instrument
- Evaluates “g” (general) vs. different “kinds” of intelligence
How IQ is Calculated
- IQ of 100: Mental age was consistent with chronological development.
- IQ < 100: Mental age was behind chronological development.
- IQ > 100: Mental age was above chronological development.
Expectations, Stereotypes and IQ Scores
- Stereotype threat: A burden of doubt one feels about his or her performance due to negative stereotypes about his or her group’s abilities. (Claude Steele)
- Scores are affected by expectations for performance.
- These expectations are shaped by cultural stereotypes.
An Illustration of Stereotype Threat
The stereotype threat starts out with a negative stereotype about one’s own group (e.g. believing that they are unintelligent). This creates anxiety and disidentification, which in turn lead to worsened performance and reduced motivation.
Beliefs About Intelligence
- Effort vs. Ability
- American parents have lower standards for their children.
- Asian parents value education more than American parents.
- Asian culture sees effort as more important than ability.
- Americans more likely to view ability as innate.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
- Gardner proposed that there are 7(8) different categories of human abilities (intelligences).
- An individual might have a strength or weakness in one or several areas.
- The ability to read, write and communicate with words.
- Examples: Authors, journalists, poets, orators, and comedians.
- Famous examples: Charles Dickens, Abraham Lincoln, Sir Winston Churchill
- The ability to reason and calculate, to think things through in a logical, systematic manner.
- Examples: engineers, scientists, economists, accountants, detectives and members of the legal profession.
- Famous examples: Albert Einstein, John Dewey
- The ability to think in pictures, visualize a future result.
- Examples: architects, sculptors, sailors, photographers, and strategic planners.
- Famous examples: Picasso, Frank Llyod Wright
- The ability to make or compose music, to sing well, or understand and appreciate music.
- To keep rhythm.
- Examples: musicians, composers, and recording engineers.
- Famous examples: Mozart, Ray Charles
- The ability to use your body skillfully to solve problems, create products or present ideas and emotions.
- Examples: athletes, dancers, actors, artists, surgeons, or those in building and construction.
- Famous examples: Michael Jordan, Charlie Chaplin
Interpersonal (Social) Intelligence
- the ability to work effectively with others
- to relate to other people
- display empathy and understanding
- to notice their motivations and goals
- Examples: teachers, facilitators, therapists, politicians, religious leaders and sales people.
- Famous examples: Mother Teresa, Oprah Winfrey
- The ability for self-analysis and reflection
- To be able to quietly contemplate and assess one’s accomplishments
- Review one’s behavior and innermost feelings
- To make plans and set goals
- Capacity to know oneself
- Famous examples: Freud, Eleanor Roosevelt, Plato
- The ability to recognize flora and fauna
- To make other consequential distinctions in the natural world
- Examples: farmers, botanists, conservationists, biologists, environmentalists
- Famous examples: Charles Darwin
Applications of MI Theory
- What would schools look like if you designed them to develop and nurture all of the intelligences?
- What would classrooms look like?
- Would teachers have to be trained differently?
- Would grading/evaluation differ?