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exam 2 - Freshman Essays

exam 2

1. Compare and contrast the conditioning, observational learning, and cognitive theories of the development of phobias. (10 points)

2. Kristen is a 38 year-old divorced mother of two teenagers. She has had a successful, well-paying career for the past several years in upper-level management. Even though she has worked for the same, thriving company for over 6 years, she’s found herself worrying constantly about losing her job and being unable to provide for her children. This worry has been troubling her for the past 8 months. Despite her best efforts, she hasn’t been able to shake the negative thoughts. Ever since the worry started, Kristen has found herself feeling restless, tired, and tense. She often paces in her office when she’s there alone. She’s had several embarrassing moments in meetings where she has lost track of what she was trying to say. When she goes to bed at night, it’s as if her brain won’t shut off. She finds herself mentally rehearsing all the worse-case scenarios regarding losing her job, including ending up homeless. What diagnosis would you give Kristen (list the symptoms you used to make the diagnosis) and what treatment would you suggest? (20 points)

3. How does stress affect the body and what are the long term effects of chronic stress? (10 points)

4. MT is a 38 year old woman who was brought in by her husband following a traumatic incident. One week ago, while outside gardening, she witnessed a mid-air collision. She saw two small plans collide and witnessed two bodies thrown from the plane, one of which landed in her yard, about 15 feed away. Marie attempted to call 911 but was paralyzed and blanked out part of the experience. She was found peeling carrots in the kitchen and crying. Since then she has been unable to focus and easily distracted. She tends to startle easily, and experiences nightmares. MT cannot go into the garden without experiencing panic, and she reports feelings of helplessness and a fear that she will never recover. She has no previous psychiatric history, although her husband described her as somewhat nervous and a “worrier”. Her mother has several phobias. MT’s friends and husband have been trying to help her with cooking and taking care of her daughter, and her boss has been very understanding about her inability to focus at work. You have decided on a diagnosis of Acute Stress Disorder. What factors make it more or less likely that MT will go on to develop full-blown PTSD? What treatment would you suggest for her? (20 points)

5. Evaluate the evidence for a biological cause for all mood disorders. How does this relate to methods of treatment? (10 points)

6. Compare and contrast Lewinsohn’s explanation of major depression with Seligman’s attribution-learned helplessness approach. (10 points)

7. A 39 year-old woman comes in for a check-up regarding previous diagnoses of hypertension and elevated cholesterol. She admits that there have been days that she had not taken her medications. She also states that she is unmotivated and isolates herself at home. She reports that she sleeps a lot but still feels tired, that doing anything takes a lot of effort, and says “nothing is fun anymore”. She also describes feelings of sadness and hopelessness. She becomes tearful and admits that in recent weeks she has been having feelings of not wanting to live, and this scares her. These feelings have been going on for the past six weeks following the death of her mother. In the last three weeks they have gotten worse, and last week she missed work twice. What are the 3 most important things you need to assess to determine whether she suffers from Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar I or Acute Depression? What additional information (if any) do you need? (20 points)

8. List and describe five different risk factors for suicide. (10 points)

9. Discuss how men and women differ in their efforts to end their lives. How do marriage, age, and ethnicity influence these differences? (10 points)

10. Someone you know is displaying risk factors for suicide and you want to assess their level of lethality. What questions would you ask, and what would you do at each step, depending on the answer you get? (You can do this in a flow chart if you prefer) (10 points)

11. MH is a 37 year old woman who is 5’3” and 210 pounds, giving her a BMI of 37. She has been overweight since childhood, however she began binge eating about 10 years ago after a failed relationship. She binges at least twice a week by cooking dinner for three, eating all of the food and then having two servings of ice cream and cookies, all in about 30 minutes. She has never used laxatives or purging after her binges. She has tried dieting in the past but now says she has given up. She has no history of substance abuse and is in good health. MH is divorced and has a 15-year-old son, who is normal weight. When he was younger, she confined her binges to the weekends; now that he is off with friends more, her binging has increased. Her divorce was initiated by her husband, partially because of her weight issues. She is a radio announcer and came in for treatment after applying for a job at a cable TV station and realizing that her appearance is what prevented her from being considered. What is the best diagnosis for MH? (Give the reasons for your choice.) What treatment would you recommend? (20 points)

12. Compare and contrast the symptoms of Anorexia, Bulimia and Binge-eating disorders. (10 points)