Part One – Identify the argument
State whether the passage has an argument in it. If it does, formally list the premises (including any hidden ones) and the conclusion.
1. In what might be called the epistemological tradition, perception (including such “inner perception” as consciousness) and memory are considered experiential sources of knowledge and justification, whereas reason is viewed as a distinct kind of source. It might be called intuitive, ratiocinative, or simply rational.
2. I can now give a large number of different proofs [for the existence of the external world], each of which is a perfectly rigorous proof; and that at many other times I have been in a position to give many others. I can prove now, for instance, that two human hands exist. How? By holding up my two hands, and saying, as I make a certain gesture with the right hand, “Here is one hand,” and adding, as I make a certain gesture with the left, “and here is another.” And if, by doing this, I have proved ipso facto the existence of external things, you will all see that I can also do it now in numbers of other ways: there is no need to multiply examples.
3. “The Matrix” presented a scenario where people were tricked into believing that the world that they perceived was actually real when it was in fact fake. If the Matrix was possible, then we would have no way to tell whether or not we are in the Matrix or not. The problem is that the Matrix is completely possible, so we are not in a position to determine whether or not the external world is real or a computer-created illusion.
Part Two – Fill in the Blank
Fill in the empty premise to make the argument valid.
(1) If Jill finishes her dinner, then she can eat her dessert.
(3) Therefore, Jill can eat her dessert.
(1) We are eating either sushi or pizza.
(3) Therefore, we are eating sushi.
(2) Eric Hosmer is a Kansas City Royal.
(3) Therefore, Eric Hosmer is a World Series Champion.
Part Three – Is this argument valid?
State whether or not the argument given is valid. If so, say according to which form.
(1) If Netflix doesn’t exist, then the reboot of Gilmore Girls would not be in production.
(2) The reboot of Gilmore Girls is in production.
(3) Therefore, Netflix does exist.
(1) If Lane’s mom learns that Lane listens to rock music, then her mom will be angry.
(2) Lane’s mom is angry.
(3) Therefore, Lane’s mom learned that Lane listens to rock music.
(1) All employees at Dunder-Mifflin enjoy their job.
(2) Jim Halpert is an employee at Dunder-Mifflin.
(3) Therefore, Jim Halpert enjoys his job.
(1) Art Vandelay is an importer or an exporter of latex goods.
(2) Art Vandelay is an importer of latex goods.
(3) Therefore, Art Vandelay is not an exporter of latex goods.