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The person I chose to explain the behavior of is my sister Destiny. My sisters attitude is very positive. She always tries her best to stay calm and get through whatever obstacle is thrown her way. She never lets the little things let her down. She strives for greatness and believes everyone can always achieve anything if they just do their best. She believes in everyone and tries to help people whenever they are in need. She is very head-strong and I admire her for her amazing personality. Peoples attitudes and behaviors can be created in many ways. Some people can be born a certain way and some people can form their personality over time. For example, at one point maybe someone was always negative and realized that’s not the way to live your life and they decided to change and see the world differently with a more positive attitude. That can be a reason where people can create their personality. As far as my sisters attitude and behavior, I feel she was born with her personality. I never remember a time where she was not positive about anything. She has never been negative on anyone or anything. To me, she has always had a strong personality. People’s attitudes and behaviors may or may not change over time, I feel as though people can’t change their ways after a period of time. I believe if people act a certain way for so long, they will remain that person because that is who they are and nothing will change that. I know for sure, my sisters attitude and behavior will not change over time. I believe she is who she is and she enjoys being who she is. Her strength gets her very far in life and anyone in her life is lucky to have her because she spreads her positive energy. The strengths in my sisters attitude and behavior are a lot of people, including me, look up to her. They admire her for her positive attitude and the way she treats people. As far as her weakness, maybe some people may mistaken her kindness for weakness but I never would. A case that gives scientific evidence is the dangerous case of Donald Trump. It explains how it is very dangerous and has many risks to write a book. It states all of the consequences that comes with it. I feel as though, all the theories from this chapter kind of states the same things. A lot of what people do, tells a lot about their personality and behaviors. How every action has a reaction.
February 5, 2018
Case Study 1
- Describe an important example of the person’s attitudes or behavior, which defines his/her personality.
HW is a 27-year-old graduate student who grew up in Indonesia but whose parents are Korean. He now resides in South Korea. He speaks Indonesian, Korean, and English. He often describes feelings of dissatisfaction, discomfort, and ambivalence about his identity, especially about his decisions for the future and how he will focus his career. Often, these descriptions accompany reflections on his fractured linguistic and cultural identity. Without a clear plan, HW enrolled in a MA graduate program in English Literature, and decided to study the drama of George Bernard Shaw. Although he had no other job and his parents supported him financially, HW failed to make good progress with his graduate work. He did not apply himself well to his studies, failed comprehensive exams and retook them, and then procrastinated heavily on completing his master’s thesis. When pushed for an explanation of his behavior, he apologized and said he had “no excuse”. His thesis committee, perplexed, decided to pass his thesis despite its low quality. HW still has no concrete future plans.
- Describe exactly how certain concepts from one of the theories for this unit explain the creation of the person’s attitudes and/or behavior described above. Highlight the key terms for the concepts used in your explanation.
HW may be fixated at the oral stage of psychosexual development. He is preoccupied with thoughts of independence vs. attachment to the circumstances of his childhood and early schooling years. Furthermore, by focusing his attention on school, despite the fact that further graduate schooling does not fulfill any concrete future goals or career plans, he continues to take in something familiar and comforting, like an infant deriving comfort from the breast. The school framework provides a substitute family structure, where HW can be close to others and discuss intimate ideas, especially under the supervision of a graduate instructor, who comes to act as a surrogate parent. He is in a conflicted position where he must develop beyond his dependency upon this substitute family and parenting and finally “grow up”—make his own decisions about his future and identity.
- Based on the concepts above, predict how the person’s attitudes or behavior will or will not change over time, and explain your expectation.
I predict that HW’s behavior will not change unless faced with an extreme situation of conflict in which he is forced to change, such as when an infant is weaned. Unfortunately, this may be very painful, such as at the death of his parents, the end of graduate study or the failure to gain entrance to a PhD program. Since he is already 27 years old and has not yet found a way to direct his energy toward his own goals, he seems caught in a loop. He admits that he needs to change, but seems to lack the energy to do so. I predict he will procrastinate on this aspect of his maturation just as he procrastinated on his master’s thesis. The big problem is a lack of security, I believe. He does not feel secure in his ability to grow beyond this stage of development, perhaps because he has no close role models who have experienced his unique situation between languages and cultures. He feels alone and too vulnerable to change.
- Apply research evidence to evaluate the strengths and/or weaknesses of the theory in explaining the person’s attitudes or behavior. Cite and describe a particular study from the text that provides scientific evidence, and explain how it supports or refutes the explanation above.
As modern research confirms, early experiences of security or lack of security impact adult development, and central to this is a mother’s responsiveness (Johnson, Dweck, and Chen, 2007; Pederson et al., 1990; Sroufe and Fleeson, 1986). HW’s situation between languages and cultures resulted in a lack of a secure “home”, “family”, and identity. In his book The Treatment of the Borderline Adolescent (1972), James F. Masterson documents how he followed 78 youths from adolescence to adulthood and found that they did not necessarily grow out of their adolescent difficulties. Procrastination and failure was one hallmark that many of his case studies shared, especially in regard to school and college. Although HW may not have a personality disorder, he shares some of these characteristics.
- Describe how the explanation of the case above differs from that of another theory covered in another text chapter. Also, describe how the explanation is similar to that of another theory in another chapter. Explain how this second theory explains something not explained, or not explained as well by the first theory used above.
My explanation differs from one that could stem from the theory of defense mechanisms. HW has displaced an unconscious anxiety and fear about growing up onto the question of his schooling and career. Rather than face his true fear, he muddles through school. The procrastination and failure he experiences in school are substitutes for this other conflict. Another theory that perhaps could explain something not explained as well by the first theory of oral fixation could be the defense mechanism of regression. Although HW is faced with the life of an adult, he attempts to regress to the more secure and less complicated life of a schoolboy.
- Describe an important example of the person’s attitude or behavior, which defines his/her personality.
MP has never had real responsibility, she never had a job and she never lived on her own, and she has not had a relationship in years. She spent her whole life living with her mother. She often plays the innocent loving role, as if she will not hurt a fly. When MP is confronted about an issue that she potentially initiated, she becomes defensive and she turns into a victim. She never agrees with another person’s opinion about her and she is convinced that she can never do any wrong. No matter the approach, she will always feel as if she is being attacked.
- Describe exactly how certain concepts from one the theories for this unit to explain the behavior of a person’s attitude and/or behavior described above. Highlight the key terms for the concepts used in your explanation.
Using the Defense Mechanisms, MP is highly susceptible to being in denial, she expresses regression and displacement. She denies her actions pertaining to any negativity, even if she initiated any issues presented to her. She expresses regression if she feels attacked, she begins to use childish antics such as, cry, throw tantrums and point the finger. Displacement takes place by shifting the issue into another topic. For example, if MP is being accused for her actions, she will bring up another incident between two different individuals. So that the spotlight could be taken away from her.
Based on the concepts above, predict how the person’s attitudes and/or behavior will or will not change over time, and explain your expectation.
- MP will most likely never change. Considering that she feels attacked every time there’s a disagreement, shows her inability to personally grow. Unfortunately, she is someone that can not let her defense down. She is comfortable with portraying an innocent image, as if she is not capable of creating chaos. Since she cannot see a problem with her behavior, she will continue to think that she’s a victim. She will demand justice from anyone who crosses her path.
- Apply research evidence to evaluate the strengths and/or weaknesses of the theory in explaining the person’s attitude or behavior. Cite and describe a particular study from the text that provides scientific evidence, explain how it supports or refutes the explanation above. You may need to find a study outside the text, such as those posted in the canvas modules?
The Defense Mechanisms were built from the challenges in an environment that threatens our inner urges and anxiety. The ego which is followed by the reality principal, tries to deal with reality. Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical approach concerned defense mechanisms. There has been research on prominent societal figures, using defense mechanisms. The psychoanalytic theory figured out the latent behavior of the figures who were anti-gay, who moralistically presented themselves in front of others, and governors who prevented white collared crimes. These figures were suppressing their inner urges. These stories were researched by (Adams, Wright & Lohr,1996).
- The defense mechanisms are related to the psychoanalytic approach. This approach studied the theory for manifest (surface) and Latent (underneath). In other words, our conscious thoughts vs. our unconscious thoughts. Freud believed that what we see on the surface is only a partial representation of what is really lying underneath. For example, playing the victim and being defensive may be due to a deeper issue. Others will not understand what that issue is, because they are viewing those actions from the surface. There may be an underlining problem such as, abuse or fear which triggers defense.
Case Study – Chapter 3
February 5, 2018
Suzanna Kaysen is an 18-year-old girl who suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder. She has much of a stiff attitude. She keeps to herself, she doesn’t have friends, and she acts impulsively. Her impulsive behaviors include carelessly sleeping with men, washing down a bottle of Advil with vodka, etc. She doesn’t express her feelings often, but it is seen that she behaves carelessly and that she is a very lonely girl.
Certain concepts of the Psychodynamic theory that explain the creation of Suzanna’s attitudes and behaviors include her understanding of her identity, emotion, attachments, conflicts, self-image, etc. Borderline personality disorder is a disorder in which a person has unstable moods, behaviors, unhealthy relationships with people, feelings of worthlessness, etc. Suzanna is very lonely, until she was put into a psychiatric hospital called McLean Hospital, where she met other girls there with different disorders. Suzanna had become rebellious when she met these girls because she had said she felt like they were just like her, battling the same things.
Suzanna’s attitudes and behaviors may not change while she is in this psychiatric hospital, because she is distracted by the other girls. They sneak out of their rooms in the middle of the night, play loud music, make noise, and wake up the staff members and the other patients. They don’t think about their actions, and this group of girls is very impulsive. My expectation is that I believe Suzanna will not improve her attitude or her behaviors if she continues to live so rebelliously while surrounding herself with those other girls. She is not allowing herself any improvement when she has a lot of potential to improve herself.
In an article titled, “Who Was Stephen Paddock? The Mystery of a Nondescript ‘Numbers Guy’” by Sabrina Tavernise, Serge F. Kovaleski, and Julie Turkewitz, the authors inform readers about a guy named Stephen Paddock, who killed 58 people at a country musical festival, shortly before shooting himself. “I wish I could tell you he was a miserable bastard, that I hate him, that if I could have killed him myself, I would have. But I can’t say that. It’s not who he was. We need to find out what happened to him. Something happened to my brother” said his younger brother. Something could have happened to Stephen Paddock psychologically that caused his impulsive behavior like that. This is similar to Suzanna, because she has impulsive behaviors as well, although it is not as serious as killing people.
The explanation of this case where I talked about Psychoanalytic theory, differs from theories such as Social Learning Theory because Social Learning Theory is a theory that focuses on human behavior. It focuses on observation, learning, remembering, etc. It talks about the Cognitive, Environmental, and Behavioral influences.
Throughout my case study of Suzanna Kaysen, I talked about her personality disorder and how her behaviors and attitudes reflect from this disorder. She has the potential to make progress and deal with her disorder, and how it causes her behaviors and her attitudes, and she has enough potential to work her way out of the psychiatric hospital as long as she doesn’t allow these obstacles and these people to get in her way.
A common application of personality theory is a case study of a single individual that applies one or more theoretical views to understanding a person. A good case study explains the causes of a person’s current behavior, makes predictions about their future behavior, and provides the information required for interventions designed to change the person. For example, a case study may be used to assist psychotherapy, personnel decisions, legal decisions, educational placements, etc.
For this assignment, you will write a brief case study that addresses the five objectives below. After you submit your case study, you will be required to do a peer review of some of your classmates’ case studies. The instructor will post a model case study in the discussion which you can use to evaluate your own case study.
A case study is available in this unit to guide your work on the unit case studies. However, do NOT use the theory used in this model to address objectives 2, 3, and 4 in the work you submit.
The case study should be one page in which you apply some of the concepts from this unit to explain the behavior of a person you know, or someone you know about (historic or fictional characters are acceptable). This paragraph should:
- Describe an important example of the person’s attitudes or behavior, which defines his/her personality.
Elina broke up with her boyfriend Sam. Four months after she broke up with Sam, she went on a date with a guy, his name was Scott. When they were on their date Elina was talking to Scott, instead of calling him his name she called him by her ex’s name, Sam. After the date he dropped her off and again she said “ bye Sam”.
2) Describe exactly how certain concepts from one of the theories for this unit explain the creation of the person’s attitudes and/or behavior described above. Highlight the key terms for the concepts used in your explanation.
Applying the Psychoanalytic theory, Elina’s case could be an example for Freudian Slip. Freudian slip is a verbal or memory mistake that is accepted to be connected to the oblivious personality or unconscious mind. Elina might still have feeling for Sam, thats why she called Scott, Sam.
3) Based on the concepts above, predict how the person’s attitudes and/or behavior will or will not change over time, and explain your expectation.
Elina’s attitude can change over time, but its going to be hard for her. Away to stop the slips is thinking before speaking. When speaking try to look the person in the eye. Fix your mistakes, if you say something wrong. Doing these will help you avoid slips.
4) Apply research evidence to evaluate the strengths and/or weaknesses of the theory in explaining the person’s attitudes or behavior. Cite and describe a particular study from the text that provides scientific evidence, and explain how it supports or refutes the explanation above.
You may need to find a study outside the text, such as those posted in some of the Canvas modules.
Freud’s hypothesis is deficient in exact proof and depends too vigorously on helpful accomplishments, though others declare that even Freud’s clinical information are defective, mistaken, and specific, best case scenario. Second, the genuine strategy or systems engaged with therapy, for example, Freud’s thoughts on the elucidation of dreams and the part of free affiliation, have been scrutinized. At last, a few faultfinders state that therapy is basically not a science and huge numbers of the standards whereupon it is based are erroneous.
5) Describe how the explanation of the case above differs from that of another theory covered in another text chapter. Also, describe how the explanation is similar to that of another theory in another chapter. Explain how this second theory explains something not explained, or not explained as well by the first theory used above.
biological approach accepts if our identity and conduct is a result of our hereditary qualities and physiology recommends we have no unrestrained choice. Psychodynamic approach proposes that identity is completely created by age six. It is troublesome or difficult to change-organic determinism. Biological approach tries to comprehend conduct as far as organic reactions yet overlooks mental and social components. Psychodynamic approach centers around adolescence and oblivious, disregards current occasions and cognizant points of view. Biological approach just considers the nature part of the verbal confrontation as it trusts that we are a result of our qualities, mind structure, neurotransmitter and hormone levels. While, Psychodynamic approach is interactionist as it considers both nature and support. Trusts that id is intrinsic and early youth encounters is essential for conscience and super self image.