Answer the questions correctly

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Part I. Questions on Catholic Natural Law Tradition, Nardin, Chapter 1.

1. Identify the six preconditions for a just war developed by Alexander of Hales (c. 1240), Catholic medieval philosophical theologian in the Natural Law Tradition (see Nardin, p. 18).

2. Identify the three major preconditions for a just war developed by the major Catholic Medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas (c. 1270). Which preconditions of Alexander Hales did Aquinas exclude from his list? (Nardin, pp. 18-19)

3. Explain how such Catholic scholastics as Vitoria (c.1535) and Suarez (c. 1610) explain the difference, in their estimation, between defensive and offensive wars? (Nardin, pp. 20-21) On which statement by Aquinas did they base their views? (Nardin, p. 20, last paragraph).

4. Why does the author of the chapter 1, that is John Finnis, believe that the rulers of any world government have no right to inflict a punishment on the offender? What argument does he use? (Nardin, p. 21.)

Part II. Questions on Realism and the issues of War and Peace, based on Nardin, chapter 3.

1. State the central claim of prescriptive realism ( see Nardin, p. 54) and explain its meaning. How is this claim different from the central claims of the Just War Theory?

2. Why does the realist perspective present a powerful challenge to other traditions of thought about the ethics of war and peace? In which three different ways can this challenge be stated or developed? (see Nardin, p. 55).

3. Why do some realists believe that the pacifist rejection of war is not only “imprudent and also immoral”? What reasons do they provide in support of this stance? (pp. 57-58)

4. What according to realists are the most important grounds for war? (pp. 58-61).

5. Why is St. Augustine is regarded as a “Christian realist” and what was ‘the real evil of war” for Augustine? (see Nardin, p. 64).

6. Which are some of the essential guiding principles for realists in the conduct of war? (pp. 65-68)

7. How do realists defend their central claim that “morality should not always govern the conduct of states”? (pp. 68-69).

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